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What are ceroid laden macrophages?

What are ceroid laden macrophages?

Ceroid-laden macrophages are a well-recognized pathological feature of liver injury but, to our knowledge, their contribution to liver fibrosis is unknown. Ceroid contains modified lipoproteins (such as MDA-LDL), which are generated as a consequence of chronic oxidative stress.

What is hepatocyte dropout?

Hepatocyte drop out and confluent necrosis are synonymous and refer to ZONES of hepatocyte death; in contrast to individual cell apoptosis aka “dead reds”. Pattern of injury that can be seen in some presentations of acute hepatitis such as autoimmune hepatitis or plasma cell rich hepatitis in transplant grafts.

What is lobular disarray?

For all forms of acute hepatitis, histology is characterized by “lobular disarray,” which includes: Ballooning degeneration. Spotty necrosis. Predominantly sinusoidal and lobular mononuclear cell infiltrate (with occasional neutrophils and eosinophils) Kupffer cell hyperplasia.

What is ceroid lipofuscin?

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is the general name for a family of at least eight genetically separate neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases that result from excessive accumulation of lipopigments (lipofuscin) in the body’s tissues. These lipopigments are made up of fats and proteins.

What is hepatocyte?

Hepatocytes are the chief functional cells of the liver and perform an astonishing number of metabolic, endocrine and secretory functions. Roughly 80% of the mass of the liver is contributed by hepatocytes.

What causes Councilman bodies?

They are found in the liver of individuals suffering from viral hepatitis (acute), yellow fever, or other viral syndromes. It represents a hepatocyte that is undergoing necrosis/apoptosis.

What is lobular hepatitis?

Liver inflammation of abrupt onset, which is characterised by patchy confluent pan- and multi-acinar necrosis, with loss of hepatocytes and marked ductular reaction around portal tracts.

What does a liver biopsy tell you?

A liver biopsy is a test used to diagnose liver conditions. Tissue samples are removed from your liver and checked under a microscope for signs of damage or disease. A liver biopsy can tell if there are cancer cells or other abnormal cells in your liver. It can also tell how well your liver is working.

What is a Ceroid?

Medical Definition of ceroid : a yellow to brown pigment that is similar in composition to lipofuscin and accumulates in cells chiefly in diseased states and under experimental conditions.

What is Batten Disease?

Batten disease is the common name for a broad class of rare, fatal, inherited disorders of the nervous system also known as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, or NCLs. In these diseases, a defect in a specific gene triggers a cascade of problems that interferes with a cell’s ability to recycle certain molecules.

What does the hepatocyte do?

Hepatocytes, the major parenchymal cells in the liver, play pivotal roles in metabolism, detoxification, and protein synthesis.

What is the function of bile canaliculi?

Bile canaliculus (plural:bile canaliculi; also called bile capillaries) is a thin tube that collects bile secreted by hepatocytes. The bile canaliculi empty into a series of progressively larger bile ductules and ducts, which eventually become common hepatic duct.

What happens to ceroid-laden macrophages during liver injury?

Ceroid-laden macrophages contain lipid-like pigment deposits and have been previously described in experimental liver fibrosis but their pathological significance is unknown ( 17, 18 ). Fig. 2. Stabilin-1 deficiency is associated with a reduction of ceroid-laden macrophages during liver injury.

What kind of macrophages contain lipid like pigment deposits?

These macrophage aggregates resembled ceroid-laden macrophages. Ceroid-laden macrophages contain lipid-like pigment deposits and have been previously described in experimental liver fibrosis but their pathological significance is unknown ( 17, 18 ). Fig. 2.

Are there macrophages that respond to CCL 4 diet?

In response to liver injury from either CCl 4 or MCD diet, we detected a subset of stabilin-1 + F4/80 + intrahepatic macrophages ( SI Appendix, Figs. S4 C and S5 A ).

What is the role of Stabilin-1 in macrophages?

Stabilin-1 + monocytes take up malondialdehyde-LDL (MDA-LDL), a major product of oxidative lipid peroxidation, to form ceroid-laden macrophages. Through the uptake of MDA-LDL, stabilin-1 suppresses production of the profibrogenic chemokine CCL3 and prevents excessive collagen deposition in experimental models of liver fibrosis.