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What happens if DNA is damaged?

What happens if DNA is damaged?

DNA damage can affect normal cell replicative function and impact rates of apoptosis (programmed cell death, often referred to as ‘cellular senescence’). Alternatively, damage to genetic material can result in impaired cellular function, cell loss, or the transformation of healthy cells to cancers.

How does DNA damage lead to mutation?

When DNA carrying a damaged base is replicated, an incorrect base can often be inserted opposite the site of the damaged base in the complementary strand, and this can become a mutation in the next round of replication. Also DNA double-strand breaks may be repaired by an inaccurate repair process leading to mutations.

Why do cells require glucose?

Glucose provides quick energy for cells. Fat has more energy than glucose, but it requires some chemical conversions before we can get it into the process of cellular respiration, so it takes longer to use. They need a constant supply of glucose from the blood to keep making energy to power your brain.

How does a damaged cell affect an organism?

Toxic damage to cells can cause individual cell death and if sufficient cells are lost, the result can be tissue or organ failure, ultimately leading to death of the organism. It is nearly impossible to separate a discussion of cellular toxicity and biochemical toxicity.

What happens to normal cells when their DNA is damaged?

Genes that repair other damaged genes (DNA repair genes) Most DNA damage gets repaired straight away because of these proteins. But if the DNA damage occurs to a gene that makes a DNA repair protein, a cell has less ability to repair itself. So errors will build up in other genes over time and allow a cancer to form.

Which causes the damage and errors in DNA?

DNA can be damaged via environmental factors as well. Environmental agents such as UV light, ionizing radiation, and genotoxic chemicals. Replication forks can be stalled due to damaged DNA and double strand breaks are also a form of DNA damage.

What is DNA explain the DNA damage and repair?

Double-strand breaks in DNA can result in loss and rearrangement of genomic sequences. These breaks are repaired by either nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) or by homologous recombination (HR), also called recombinational repair or template–assisted repair.

What happens if there is no glucose in cellular respiration?

It’s understood that glycolysis, though an anaerobic process, almost invariably proceeds to the last two cellular respiration steps. Regardless, to sum up the role of glucose in cellular respiration: Without it, respiration stops and loss of life follows.

What happens when glucose enters the cell?

Glucose enters cells where it undergoes phosphorylation to form glucose-6-phosphate. Changing the form that the glucose is in means that glucose cannot be transported back outside the cell, and the cells sense that the concentration of glucose is higher outside the cell than inside.

What happens if the cell does not get sufficient energy supply?

When the energy supply slumps, cells can become damaged or destroyed. But mitochondria have importance beyond rare diseases. Even in healthy people, researchers have found, mitochondria can gradually deteriorate as we grow older.

What happens to the energy used by cells?

Cells do not use the energy from oxidation reactions as soon as it is released. Instead, they convert it into small, energy-rich molecules such as ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), which can be used throughout the cell to power metabolism and construct new cellular components.